An Arabian somersault is a front somersault that is preceded by a half twist. Arabians can be confused with back somersaults with half twists; however, the twist is in a different place. In an Arabian, flight backwards is initiated, then the twist, and the twist is completed before forward rotation is initiated. In a back somersault 1/2, backwards rotation is initiated before the twist.
In women's gymnastics, a double Arabian layout (dos Santos) is one of the three most difficult skills on floor, and a double Arabian tuck (Patterson) is one of the two most difficult beam dismounts.
A similar skill is the Cuervo vault, which is a handspring onto the table and then a half twist before a back somersault.